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International Agreements Act: Understanding the Basics

International agreements play a crucial role in the global economy, politics, and social issues. These agreements are formal treaties or contracts signed between two or more countries to establish cooperation and collaboration on specific matters. The International Agreements Act is a legal framework that governs the process of negotiating, entering into, and implementing international agreements by the US federal government.

What is the International Agreements Act?

The International Agreements Act is a federal law passed in 1979 that outlines the procedures and requirements for the US government to enter into international agreements. The act covers both executive agreements, which are agreements entered into by the President and foreign leaders without Senate approval, and treaties, which require Senate ratification.

The act defines an international agreement as “any agreement, written or otherwise, between two or more governments, or any instrument of international law, whether or not in writing, with respect to which the United States is a party.” This definition encompasses a broad range of agreements, including trade deals, arms control agreements, environmental treaties, and human rights agreements.

What are the requirements for entering into international agreements?

The International Agreements Act establishes a process for negotiating and implementing international agreements. The act requires that the President consult with Congress before entering into any international agreement. The President must inform Congress of the nature and scope of the agreement, the reasons why it is in the national interest, and any potential implications for US law.

If the agreement is a treaty, it must be submitted to the Senate for ratification by a two-thirds majority vote. If the agreement is an executive agreement, it must be reported to Congress within sixty days of its entry into force. Congress can then pass a joint resolution of disapproval, which would terminate the agreement.

What is the role of the State Department and other agencies?

The State Department is the primary agency responsible for negotiating and implementing international agreements on behalf of the US government. The State Department works closely with other federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, and the Environmental Protection Agency, to ensure that the agreements align with US interests and policies.

The State Department also provides guidance for US agencies and foreign governments on the interpretation and implementation of international agreements. The Department is responsible for ensuring that the agreements are complied with by the parties and for resolving disputes that may arise.


The International Agreements Act is a critical piece of legislation that governs the process of negotiating, entering into, and implementing international agreements by the US government. The act provides a framework for transparency, accountability, and oversight in the negotiation and implementation of these agreements. Understanding the basics of the International Agreements Act is essential for policymakers, business leaders, and citizens to navigate the complex landscape of international relations.